10 types of pests threaten grapes


Analysis of the phytosanitary state of grape plantations indicates a stable increase in the number of various pests and areas inhabited by pests. Among which the greatest harm to grapes is caused by leaf-twists, sucking pests, leafhoppers, thrips, ticks, lamellar beetles, scoops, spiders and long-nosed, as well as a new species - a brown marble bug.

This is reported by the "Ukrainian Gardening" magazine.

“The leaf roll develops in three generations, but recently, in some years, in the conditions of the Northern Black Sea region, it can partially give a fourth generation, which develops on late grape varieties, which is facilitated by warm weather conditions in September and October,” writes Lyudmila Baranets from the National Science Center “Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after V.E. Tairova "and Vasily Cheban, manager of the" Syngenta "company.

They also add that sucking pests - ticks, thrips, leafhoppers - have spread significantly over the past 10 years under conditions of a stable thermal anomaly. By the way, the latter are replacing even the previously most common spider mites. These are buffalo tea, green, yellow grape leafhoppers and invasive species new to Ukraine - Japanese (or Far Eastern) grape leafhoppers and Metcalfa leafhoppers (or white or citrus). Leafhoppers are especially dangerous for nurseries and young plantations, since during feeding they release phytotoxins into the leaves, which inhibit the growth and development of young plants. In addition, some species carry viral and mycoplasma diseases, and some excrete excrement in the form of honeydew, on which smut fungi develop, which interfere with the processes of photosynthesis.

In recent years, thrips have been causing serious damage to vineyards. Due to their excellent natural adaptive ability, they are one of the most dangerous and widespread pests of many crops. The most common thrips are common thrips, tobacco thrips, grape thrips. In greenhouse conditions - western flower thrips. Signs of damage to leaves, ridges and shoots from thrips are observed everywhere. The level of damage to the leaves varies from weak to severe in the form of punctate necrosis, minor ruptures and deformation of the leaf blade. On shoots, ridges and berries, damage from thrips is in the form of dark dots and longitudinal striae that merge into cork areas, often confused with the disease of drying out of grape ridges. The arid climate promotes the spread of phytophagous mites. The acarofauna of the vine has more than 20 species. Pathological changes entail spider mites - garden and Turkestan, grape mites - kidney, flaky and felt (or itching). They lead to significant pathological changes that affect the quality of the crop. On bushes damaged by ticks, leaves fall prematurely, which negatively affects the maturation of the vine and the productivity of plantings in the future. Recently, grape phylloxera has been spreading again, damage to the puff apparatus of which is not only on American, but also on European grape varieties. The harmfulness of soil pests is growing - representatives of the lamellar beetles (various types of May beetles, the larvae of which develop in the soil and feed on the roots of grape plants). With a significant number, the larvae are able to completely gnaw the roots of seedlings, young and even fruiting plants, which often leads to their death.

Noticeably every year in the vineyards, the harm of the caterpillars of scoops and pyaduns in the diet of swollen buds of grape bushes is growing. A rather dangerous pest is a smoky brownish-gray spade, one caterpillar of which can destroy up to 10 buds.

The complex of insects that feed on grape buds in early spring also includes representatives of the weevil family, among which Crimean, Turkish and furrowed are the most common in the southern vineyards.

She pays special attention to the increase in the number and harmfulness in the ampelocenoses of the southern regions of Ukraine furry deer, American white butterfly and cotton scoop.

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